Nowadays, computer-aided material and component development (ICME) also includes material and energy efficiency as a central criterion for the production and use of components. Modern methods of topology optimization make it possible to develop ceramic and metallic components with minimal mass and heat capacity for specific applications. Thanks to advances in forming processes such as additive manufacturing, injection molding, or textile methods, the necessary often complex geometries (e.g. cellular structures) can be industrially manufactured. Fraunhofer Center HTL uses proven procedures for automatic topology optimization such as density-based, level-set, or grid-based algorithms for component design. It is further developing the methodology within current R&D projects regarding efficient thermal processes. The necessary material properties can be measured at the HTL, and prototypes can be produced and tested. Current examples include the development of topology-optimized, lightweight kiln furniture and the design of multi-layer thermal insulation and radiation shields.